So what is brand Image ? Unlike brand identity brand image is the perception about a brand reflected by the brand associations held in consumer memories (Keller, 1993)
This definition is consistent with other authors such as Newman, 1957; Dichter, 1985; Aaker, 1991; Engel, Blackwell & Miniard, 1995 Keller (1993) describes the components of brand image being attributes, benefits, Brand attitude he then goes on to make another contribution within the typology of brand image, distinguishing 11 different dimensional brand image the 11 dimensions being product attributes, intangibles, customer benefits, price, use/application, user, celebrities, lifestyle, project class, competitors and country of origin.
Sirgy (1981) thinks that these associations can be characterised by at least eleven dimensions. In the Typology of brand Image below it shows the components of brand image (Attitude, attributes & Benefits) at the bottom and the antecedents at the top (The Firm, Other Organisations & evoked universe).
- The antecedents displayed of brand image are :The firm – ie what the firm does to ultimately make you aware of the brand and this category refers to knowledge of facts related to the firm: its country of origin, its strategy, its story, and so forth.
- Other organisation – what other orginisations do to differentiate themselves from competition)
- Evoked Universe – Brand Personality, Celebrities/ events, Usages/ Experiences and Users. Who is using it, who stands by it and what they intend us to use it for.
So in the case of Johnsons baby oil the
- Attributes: compassion, kindness, care, and love
- Benefits: Treating or preventing dry, itchy skin or minor skin irritations.
- Attitudes: high brand image in the market, high quality